In 2001 Robbie Williams's album Swing When You're Winning consisted mainly of popular swing covers. The arrangements also had a smoother rhythmic sense than the ragtime-influenced arrangements that were the more typical "hot" dance music of the day. Harker, Brian C., 1997, Early Musical Development of Louis Armstrong, 1921–1928, unpublished PhD Dissertation, Columbia University, 390 p. plus Appendix.
Although Goodman was billed as the “King of Swing,” the best band was that of Ellington, and Basie’s was perhaps next. Swing bands and sales continued to decline from 1953 to 1954.
Vocalists were becoming the star attractions of the big bands. Starting in 1923, the Fletcher Henderson Orchestra featured innovative arrangements by Don Redman that featured call-response interplay between brass and reed sections, and interludes arranged to back up soloists.  The rhythm-heavy tunes for dancing were called "stomps." Henderson's next business was selling arrangements to up-and-coming bandleader Benny Goodman.
Dan Hicks and His Hot Licks, and later David Grisman, presented adaptations of Gypsy Swing, rekindling interest in the musical form. With its Savoy engagement in 1937, the Count Basie Orchestra brought the riff-and-solo oriented Kansas City style of swing to national attention. To succeed on a national scale, a band—especially its leader—had to be commercially exploitable, and in this period of American history this meant that its leader and members had to be white. And it's no wonder why - the big band era was filled with incredible musicians. The Big Band Era – The Swing Era. This page was last edited on 4 November 2020, at 02:20. Equally as important was Duke Ellington, whose music was infused with a unique range of harmonies and sound colours. A dance floor full of jitterbuggers had cinematic appeal; they were sometimes featured in newsreels and movies. Gypsy Jazz: In Search of Django Reinhardt and the Soul of Gypsy Swing. A typical song played in swing style would feature a strong, anchoring rhythm section in support of more loosely-tied woodwind and brass sections playing call-response to each other. Gypsy swing is an outgrowth of the jazz violin swing of Joe Venuti and Eddie Lang. Gypsy swing groups generally have no more than five players. Although they originated in different continents, similarities have often been noted between gypsy swing and Western swing]l, leading to various fusions. Some of the top jitterbuggers gathered in professional dance troupes such as Whitey's Lindy Hoppers (featured in A Day At the Races, Everybody Dance, and Hellzapoppin'). He also used "stops" or musical silences to build tension in his phrasing. Coleman Hawkins arrived back from an extended stay in Europe to New York in 1939, recorded his famous version of “Body and Soul”, and fronted his own big band. Many of the bands played neo-swing which combined swing with rockabilly, ska, and rock. The swing era also coincided with the greatest popularity of dance bands in general. Electro swing is mainly popular in Europe, and electro swing artists incorporate influences such as tango and Django Reinhardt's gypsy swing. A subculture of jitterbuggers, sometimes growing quite competitive, congregated around ballrooms that featured hot swing music.
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