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In addition, the laterally and posteriorly directed components of force generated during unsteady turning maneuvers exceed those developed during steady swimming by 1.3- and 2.9-fold, respectively, on average (Table1). Over repeated cycles of soft dorsal fin oscillation, a staggered trail of linked vortices is formed, with downstream jets alternating on the left and right sides of the body. Functions traditionally ascribed to the dorsal fin of perch-like fishes have been largely non-propulsive. Fig.4C).

Frontal-plane flow fields were typically 7–10cm on each side and made up of 20×20 matrices of velocity vectors. Studies of man-made foils undergoing heaving and pitching motion (Triantafyllou et al., 1993; Anderson et al., 1998) show that propulsive efficiency, defined as the ratio of useful power output to total power input, is maximized when Strouhal number falls within the range 0.25
attached to the fin, but not yet shed into the wake as free centers of vorticity) could not be accurately determined using DPIV analysis. Fig.4E,F, vortex I).

In the present study, we experimentally examined the hydrodynamic impact of vortices produced by the soft dorsal fin on vortices generated by the tail of Lepomis macrochirus. Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas.

While fish swam steadily at 0.5Ls−1, a wooden dowel was introduced into the water along the wall of the working area inducing a low-speed evasive maneuver, as described previously (Drucker and Lauder, 2001). This connection may serve to ‘anchor’ the soft dorsal fin and provide increased rigidity in its anterior section. At the lower swimming speed studied (0.5Ls−1), all the median fins are hydrodynamically inactive as the paired pectoral fins alone propel the animal forward. In unsteady swimming (i.e.

Vorticity previously attached to the anterior portion of the fin migrates downstream to contribute to new trailing edge vorticity (clockwise flow). Consistent with this finding, each fin generates a propulsive wake (Fig.4, Fig.8) (see Fig.9 in Drucker and Lauder, 1999).

at the bottom of the panel), the ipsilateral or ‘strong-side’ pectoral fin abducts, generating a strong laterally oriented wake flow that rotates the body around the center of mass. Flow fields generated separately by each fin are illustrated in Fig.4 and Fig.8. Coordinated use of the pectoral fins, caudal fin and soft dorsal fin to increase wake momentum, as documented for L. macrochirus, highlights the ability of teleost fishes to employ multiple propulsors simultaneously for controlling complex swimming behaviors. Previous study of the pectoral fin wake (Drucker and Lauder, 2001) together with new observations of the dorsal fin wake in the present study allow a description of the combined role of paired and median fins in low-speed turning maneuvers. To define the role of the soft dorsal fin in controlling the turning maneuver, wake forces were resolved geometrically into perpendicular components within the frontal wake plane. Sinusoidal paths described by the soft dorsal fin and dorsal lobe of the tail within the horizontal plane (Fig.2D, position 2) during steady swimming at 1.1Ls−1, where L is total body length. A starting vortex is shed as the fin moves laterally (Fig.5D,F, vortex I) and a counterrotating ‘stopping-starting’ vortex (Brodsky, 1991; Brodsky, 1994; Drucker and Lauder, 1999) is shed as the fin decelerates, completes its stroke reversal and returns to the midline of the body (Fig.5E,G, vortex II+III). The Strouhal number (St) was calculated for each fin during steady swimming as a predictor of vortex wake structure and propulsive efficiency (Triantafyllou et al., 1993; Anderson et al., 1998): where f is fin beat frequency, A is wake width (estimated as maximal side-to-side excursion of the fin’s trailing edge) and U is the forward swimming speed of the fish. One-third of the laterally directed fluid force measured during turning is developed by the soft dorsal fin. Temporal and spatial patterns of fin motion within the horizontal plane of analysis are presented for two consecutive stroke cycles in Fig.6E. For both steady swimming and turning, force components were measured relative to the axis of progression of the fish at the onset of fin abduction (see also Drucker and Lauder, 2001). For example, the drag wake (von Kármán street) of an upstream bluff body can either strengthen or weaken the circulation of the near-field thrust wake (reverse von Kármán street) produced by a downstream oscillating foil (Gopalkrishnan et al., 1994; Anderson, 1996; Triantafyllou et al., 2000). Electromyographic recordings from the dorsal inclinator muscles of bluegill sunfish reveal discrete activity patterns during both steady and unsteady swimming behaviors (Jayne et al., 1996).

The tail itself generates a vortex wake very similar to that produced by the soft dorsal fin: a trail of staggered, counterrotating vortices arranged in pairs, each with a central fluid jet (Fig.8).

These data allowed graphical presentation of two-dimensional fin tip trajectories as well as measurement of the relative sweep amplitude and phase lag of oscillatory motion of the dorsal and caudal fins. Each force is reported as mean ± s.e.m.

Vortices observed in the raw DPIV video recording are indicated by dashed lines. We hypothesize that, in the early stage of the tail’s half-stroke, the presence of rotational flow from the dorsal fin’s wake (vortex a) increases incident velocity over the tail and enhances same-sign vorticity bound to the tail (flow that is ultimately shed as vortex b; Fig.10C). For steady swimming, we present empirical evidence that vortex structures generated by the soft dorsal fin upstream can constructively interact with those produced by the caudal fin downstream. The evolution of teleost fishes is characterized by an impressive diversification of locomotor anatomy.

When the gap between fins is small (e.g. Kinematic patterns for the soft dorsal fin (D) and tail fin (T) oscillating in tandem during steady swimming at 1.1Ls−1, where L is total body length. (B) Lateral force generated during turning following steady swimming at 0.5Ls−1. Furthermore, non-periodic, unilateral abduction of the soft dorsal fin during turning (Fig.5) has not previously been documented for perch-like fishes. Although the trailing edge of the dorsal fin shows generally similar kinematics to that of the tail, the upstream and downstream median fins create distinct and independent momentum flows. The bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) is selected as a representative perciform fish, exhibiting the characteristic dual dorsal-fin anatomy (Fig.1), for which patterns of fin movement and motor activity during swimming are well described (Jayne et al., 1996).

Sunfish swam individually in the center of the working area (28cm×28cm×80cm) of a variable-speed freshwater flow tank. Quantitative wake visualization holds considerable promise for illuminating the hydrodynamic significance of evolutionary variation in propulsor morphology. As the tail completes its stroke, the two counterclockwise-rotating vortices coalesce, forming a single larger downstream vortex c (D). The opposite term is 'ventral' - For example in fish (and dolphins given the category) the dorsal fins are on the top of the body, while the ventral fins are on the underside.

The horizontal light sheet was positioned at three heights along the dorsoventral body axis of the fish. Table1). yet in Japan, Fugu is considered a great delicacy prepared by special chefs. It is important to note, however, that, although vortex c represents a fusion of two vortices, this structure forms downstream of the tail and therefore does not imply a benefit to force production. (A) As the fin sweeps medially (here at the beginning of a half-stroke), a strong center of vorticity is generated at the fin’s trailing edge, while opposite-sign vorticity bound to the fin develops upstream.

Since vortices shed by the dorsal fin develop as the propulsor begins to move medially from a position of maximal left or right abduction (Fig.4), these wake structures are positioned in Fig.7 precisely at the crests and troughs of the dorsal fin’s sinusoidal trajectory. (A) In response to a stimulus issued on the left side of the fish (i.e. To investigate potential hydrodynamic interactions between the dorsal and caudal fins, we measured median fin kinematics and corresponding wake flow patterns within the frontal plane (Fig.2D, position 2).

The plesiomorphic condition exhibited by most basal teleost fishes is the possession of a single soft-rayed dorsal fin (e.g. We assumed that paired vortices observed in the frontal plane represent approximately mid-line sections of a circular vortex ring. Interrelationships among selected orders of teleost fishes to illustrate variation in dorsal fin design (see Lauder and Liem, 1983). For Lepomis macrochirus, the frequency and amplitude of oscillation of the caudal fin yield Strouhal numbers within this range (Table1), a result matching that for the tails of many other aquatic vertebrates (Triantafyllou et al., 1993) as well as the pectoral fins of perciform fishes (Walker and Westneat, 1997; Drucker and Lauder, 1999). English Dictionary antonyms of Dorsum. Opposite words for Dorsum. We expect the circulation of this combined vortex, although less than the strength of a and b together, to be greater than the circulation of a or b alone. To characterize temporal and spatial patterns of median fin movement during steady swimming, selected video frames were digitized using custom-designed image-analysis software.

Steady swimming was elicited at two speeds: 0.5Ls−1 (approximately 11cms−1), a speed at which propulsion was achieved by oscillation of the paired pectoral fins without contribution from the median fins, and 1.1Ls−1 (approximately 23cms−1), a speed just above the gait transition to combined paired- and median-fin locomotion (for animals of the size studied here, this gait transition speed is 1.0Ls−1) (Drucker and Lauder, 2000).

As the fin decelerates on the opposite side of the body, vorticity bound to the fin develops as a stopping vortex (Fig.4F, vortex II).

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